Animal Health & Nutrition

4,085 products found for Animal Health & Nutrition in Agriculture & Feed
Applications
Ruminants
Birds & Poultry
Pets
Swine
Other Animal Health & Nutrition
Aquaculture
Feed Production & Processing
Feed Preservation
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Hide Blends
With SDS
Phytoshield™ Livoboost product card banner

Jubilant Ingrevia Limited

PhytoShield™ LivoBoost

Ingredient Name: Choline

Features: Fatty Liver Inhibition

Function: Supplement

Choline is a well-known lipotropic factor responsible for the mobilization of liver fat in the form of lipoproteins toward extrahepatic tissues where they may be metabolized or deposited. PhytoShield LivoBoost is Herbal Choline, which optimise fat energy towards muscle protein accretion rather than body fat synthesis, resulting in better growth, improved FCR and lower lipid content in liver, abdomen, and carcass.

Veegum® Hv product card banner

Vanderbilt Minerals LLC

VEEGUM® HV

INCI Name: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate

Function: Controlled Release Agent, Stabilizer, Thickener, Suspension Aid, Emulsifier, Binder, Emulsion Stabilizer, Taste Masker, Suspension Stabilizer, Disintegrant, Viscosity Modifier

Ingredient Origin: Natural Origin

Chemical Name: Aluminum Magnesium Silicate

Labeling Claims: Naturally Derived, Clean at Sephora, Natural, Organic, Mineral based

CAS Number: 1327-43-1

Certifications & Compliance: Organic Certified, REACH (Europe), United States Pharmacopeia (USP), European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.), ECOCERT, National Formulary (NF), OMRI

Dosage Form: Tablets, Ointments, Lotions, Granules, Suspension, Stick, Creams, Suppositories

VEEGUM® HV Magnesium Aluminum Silicate provides excellent emulsion and suspension stability at low use levels. This grade is used in a variety of personal care and pharmaceutical products. VEEGUM HV is a highly purified smectite clay suspension stabilizer, emulsion optimizer and rheology modifier. VEEGUM HV also reduces the slippery or sticky feel of gums and polymers, while providing a silky, tack-free feel in topical preparations. This smectite clay is synergistic with common thickeners such as VANZAN® xanthan gum and CMC. These combinations will provide greater thickening, stabilizing and suspending properties than those developed by the individual components of the mixture. Typical Use Levels: Between 0.5% and 3% INCI Name: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate VEEGUM HV is Magnesium Aluminum Silicate NF Type IC

Encromix® Plus product card banner

Jubilant Ingrevia Limited

EnCroMix® Plus

Function: Abiotic Stress Mitigator, Energy Sources

Features: Improving Stress Tolerance

Encromix@ Plus is the synergistic combination of Chromium, Biotin and Ribose to combat stress conditions and boost performance in poultry.

Guardicate™ product card banner

Alltech

GUARDICATE™

Animal Species: Piglets, Swine

Guardicate™ is Alltech’s newest technology, aiming at improving the safety of pig feed and its components. The research shows that Guardicate promotes better feed safety and feed hygiene by mitigating potential risks. It gives pork producers peace of mind that their herds are safe from outside risks and threats.

Veegum® Ultra product card banner

Vanderbilt Minerals LLC

VEEGUM® Ultra

INCI Name: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate

Function: Thickener, Suspension Aid, Emulsifier, Disintegrant, Binder, Emulsion Stabilizer, Viscosity Modifier, Suspension Stabilizer, Stabilizer

Ingredient Origin: Natural Origin

Chemical Name: Aluminum Magnesium Silicate

Labeling Claims: Mineral based, Naturally Derived, Natural, Organic, Clean at Sephora

CAS Number: 1327-43-1

Dosage Form: Lotions, Suppositories, Creams, Ointments, Stick

Certifications & Compliance: Organic Certified, ECOCERT, OMRI

VEEGUM® Ultra Magnesium Aluminum Silicate is a unique acidic smectite clay that produces dispersions in the 4.2-5.2 pH range for optimum compatibility with the naturally acidic pH of the skin. VEEGUM Ultra is the easiest of all the grades to hydrate and has a unique white color. VEEGUM Ultra is for use in any low pH formulation and is particularly useful in sunscreens, acne treatments, and exfoliants. VEEGUM Ultra is a highly purified smectite clay suspension stabilizer, emulsion optimizer and rheology modifier. VEEGUM Ultra also reduces the slippery or sticky feel of gums and polymers, while providing a silky, tack-free feel in topical preparations. This smectite clay is synergistic with common thickeners such as VANZAN® xanthan gum and CMC. These combinations will provide greater thickening, stabilizing and suspending properties than those developed by the individual components of the mixture.

Citrofol® Ai product card banner

Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG

CITROFOL® AI

Chemical Name: Triethyl citrate

CAS Number: 77-93-0

Ingredient Origin: Plant Origin

Certifications & Compliance: United States Pharmacopeia (USP), European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.), GMP, REACH (Europe), FDA Approved

Labeling Claims: Clean at Sephora, Organic, Vegan, Non-GMO

Features: Plasticizing, Film Forming

Jungbunzlauer CITROFOL® AI has been registered according to REACH Regulation at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in 2013.CITROFOL® AI consists 100 % out of natural materials, citric acid and ethanol, and is used as flavour and carrier for flavours in the food industry. It is also permitted as a processing aid to whip egg whites. In the personal care industry CITROFOL® AI is used as solvent, diluent and fixative by perfumers. It is well accepted as an active ingredient in deodorants; it inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of sweat components. CITROFOL® AI is a cosmetic raw material approved by ECOCERT GREENLIFE, conform to COSMOS Standard. In pharmaceutical applications CITROFOL® AI contributes as plasticiser to the performance of enteric-coated tablets.

Perstorp Ab Formic Acid 85% product card banner

Perstorp AB

Perstorp AB Formic Acid 85%

Ingredient Name: Formic Acid

Chemical Name: Formic acid

CAS Number: 64-18-6

Formic Acid 85% (CAS: 64-18-6) is a colorless carboxylic acid used as a raw material or pH-adjuster for chemical synthesis, an intermediate in pharmaceuticals and fine chemical applications and as active ingredient in cleaning agents. End uses Dyeing and impregnation of textiles Tanning, dyeing, sterilization, preservation and acidification of skins and hides Wastewater treatment Cleaning fluids Fish silage and animal feed

Heartland 75 Vital Wheat Gluten product card banner

PureField Ingredients

HEARTLAND 75 Vital Wheat Gluten

Ingredient Name: Wheat Gluten

Ingredient Origin: Non-Animal Origin, Plant Origin, Natural Origin

Features: Visco-Elasticity, High Elasticity, Neutral Taste, Easy To Handle, Creamy Texture

Labeling Claims: Non-GMO, Natural, Plant-Based, Naturally Derived

Certifications & Compliance: Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS), FDA 21 CFR 184.1322, SQF Level II

Protein Content: 75.0 - 75.0 %

HEARTLAND 75 Vital Wheat Gluten is a light creamy tan powder with a bland taste produced from USA Hard Red Winter wheat. The gluten is washed from the flour and dried in a controlled environment producing a concentrated and powerful material. On a dry basis, HEARTLAND 75 is concentrated at 75% protein. Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) under 21 CFR, Part 184.1322

Drakeol® 7 Lt Min Oil Nf product card banner

Calumet

Drakeol® 7 LT MIN OIL NF

Function: Lubricant, Binder, Release Agent, Ointment Base, Anti-Sticking Agent, Carrier, Laxative

Physical Form: Liquid

Labeling Claims: Halal, Kosher, GMO-free, BSE-free, Vegan

Chemical Name: White Mineral Oil

Drakeol® 7 LT MIN OIL NF is a white oils are among the most versatile products in the world, making them a standard preference across diverse industries. Due to their extreme purity, white oils provide an effective use as a base, emollient, lubricant, release agent, binder, or excipient in multiple product applications.

Availa® Fe 100 product card banner

Zinpro

Availa® Fe 100

Function: Mineral

Iron Content: 10.0 - 10.0 %

A nutritional feed ingredient for animal feed. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as iron amino acid complex. Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) No. 57.150. Canada Reg. No. 982974

Drakeol® 600 Min Oil Usp product card banner

Calumet

Drakeol® 600 MIN OIL USP

Function: Lubricant, Binder, Release Agent, Ointment Base, Anti-Sticking Agent, Carrier, Laxative

Physical Form: Liquid

Labeling Claims: Halal, Kosher, GMO-free, BSE-free, Vegan

Chemical Name: White Mineral Oil

Drakeol® 600 MIN OIL USP is a white oils are among the most versatile products in the world, making them a standard preference across diverse industries. Due to their extreme purity, white oils provide an effective use as a base, emollient, lubricant, release agent, binder, or excipient in multiple product applications.

Citri-fi® 100 Citrus Fiber product card banner

Fiberstar, Inc.

Citri-Fi® 100 Citrus Fiber

Ingredient Name: Citrus Fiber

Function: Viscosity Modifier, Stabilizer, Texturizing Agent, Thickener, Emulsifier, Binder, Dietary Fiber, Mouthfeel Improvement, Humectant

Labeling Claims: Kosher, Gluten-free, Halal, Allergen-free, Clean Label, Naturally Derived, Natural, Vegetarian, Non-GMO

Certifications & Compliance: Non-GMO Project, Kosher, Halal

Features: Texturizing, Emulsifying, Decreased Syneresis, Improved Water Retention, Improved Freeze/Thaw Stability, Good Gelling Properties, Improved Water Holding Capacity

End Uses: Powdered Beverages, Biscuits & Cookies, Plant Based Dairy Alternatives, Donuts, Pancakes, Bread, Salad Dressing, Muffins, Dips, Buns, Tortilla, Soups, Sauces, Nutritional Bars, Smoothies, Salsas, Mayonnaise, Rolls

Citri-Fi 100 series is a natural, upcycled citrus fiber produced from the citrus juicing process. This clean label ingredient provides high water holding and emulsification to a variety foods including bakery, beverages, dairy, meats, dressings, sauces, frozen foods, pet food, dairy alternatives and meat substitutes. Citri-Fi 100 series can be labeled as citrus fiber, dried citrus pulp or citrus flour.

Availa® Mn 80 product card banner

Zinpro

Availa® Mn 80

Function: Mineral

A nutritional feed ingredient for animal feed. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as manganese amino acid complex. Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) No. 57.150. Canada Reg. No. 990588

Intellibond® C product card banner

Micronutrients

IntelliBond® C

Ingredient Name: Copper Chloride Hydroxide

Function: Mineral

Features: Shelf Stable

IntelliBond® C is a nutritional feed additive for livestock, companion animals, fish and crustaceans.

Veegum® Pure product card banner

Vanderbilt Minerals LLC

VEEGUM® PURE

INCI Name: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate

Function: Stabilizer, Thickener, Suspension Aid, Emulsifier, Disintegrant, Binder, Emulsion Stabilizer, Viscosity Modifier, Suspension Stabilizer

Ingredient Origin: Natural Origin

Chemical Name: Aluminum Magnesium Silicate

Labeling Claims: Clean at Sephora, Mineral based, Naturally Derived, Natural, Organic

CAS Number: 1327-43-1

Dosage Form: Ointments, Stick, Tablets, Suppositories

Certifications & Compliance: ECOCERT GREENLIFE, Organic Certified, ECOCERT, OMRI, COSMOS

VEEGUM® Pure Magnesium Aluminum Silicate is a general-purpose grade that complies with the standards for ecological and organic cosmetics. VEEGUM Pure is a highly purified smectite clay suspension stabilizer, emulsion optimizer and rheology modifier. VEEGUM Pure also reduces the slippery or sticky feel of gums and polymers, while providing a silky, tack-free feel in topical preparations. This smectite clay is synergistic with common thickeners such as VANZAN® xanthan gum and CMC. These combinations will provide greater thickening, stabilizing and suspending properties than those developed by the individual components of the mixture. VEEGUM Pure is OMRI™-listed and authorized by ECOCERT Greenlife™ as complying with the ECOCERT and COSMOS™ standards for ecological and organic skin care products and cosmetics.

Natracol Titanium Dioxide product card banner

Roha

Natracol Titanium Dioxide

Ingredient Name: Titanium Dioxide

Color: White

Ingredient Origin: Natural Origin

Labeling Claims: Natural

Natracol Titanium Dioxide by Roha is commonly used as Food Coloring and Natural Food Coloring for a variety of applications.

Termin-8® product card banner

Anitox

Termin-8®

Function: Anti-Fungal Agent, Anti-Microbial Agent

Certifications & Compliance: FDA Approved

Termin-8® offers the highest level of Pathogen Control in feed and has a residual effect, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for three weeks post-application. Termin-8 controls feed contamination caused by: Salmonella species and molds. Application of Termin-8 reduces pathogen incidence in the food chain. It is particularly effective in reducing contamination caused by Salmonella spp. Termin-8 has been extensively tested, resulting in worldwide approvals including FDA and the European Commission. Termin-8 provides pathogen control for feed used in more than 60 countries.

Alquerfeed Antitox Plus product card banner

Biovet

Alquerfeed Antitox Plus

Function: Toxin Binder, Probiotic

Animal Species: Deer, Crustaceans, Turkey, Swine, Hogs, Piglets, Prawn, Cattle, Fish, Broilers, Goat, Cows, Laying Hens, Buffalo, Sheep, Ducks, Geese & Game Birds, Sows, Shrimp

Alquerfeed Antitox Plus is a mycotoxin binder with probiotics intended for feed and raw materials. It is intended for the repopulation of intestinal probiotic flora, and it has the following properties: probiotic effect, it avoids the toxic effects in animals caused by mycotoxins and protects intestinal mucosa from injuries and irritations, enabling its regeneration. It is effective against the 5 mycotoxin groups.

Inophyte® Calcium Magnesium Phytate (Inositol Hexaphosphate/ip6) product card banner

NutriScience Innovations

InoPhyte® Calcium Magnesium Phytate (Inositol Hexaphosphate/IP6)

Function: Antioxidant

Features: Improves Immunity

Certifications & Compliance: Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)

InoPhyte® Calcium Magnesium Phytate (Inositol Hexaphosphate/IP6) is a natural antioxidant. It is a sugar molecule with six attached phosphates and is made via a proprietary process from rice bran. Calcium Magnesium Phytate is one of the organophosphoric esters that occurs naturally in rice bran with an average of 9.5 – 10.5 % compared with other plant seeds that normally contain 0.6 – 3.6 %. InoPhyte® has been found to regulate cellular functions including cell differentiation and proliferation. Additionally, studies have shown that Inositol Hexaphosphate/IP6 can be an effective tool to support the strength of the immune system. Due to its enormous chelating power, InoPhyte® can be used in a wide range of food applications.

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum Tn product card banner

Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum TN

Function: Viscosity Modifier, Stabilizer, Thickener

Chemical Family: Gums & Hydrocolloids

Xanthan Gum TN is a technical grade 80 mesh type. It has excellent thickening and stabilizing properties for a variety of cleaner and detergent applications.

Devenish Nutrition Colfapig product card banner

Devenish Nutrition

Devenish Nutrition ColfaPig

Features: Improves Immunity, Improves Body Weight Gain

ColfaPig is a specific mix of encapsulated short and medium chain fatty acids that has shown numerous benefits on colostrum quality, and subsequent piglet performance.

Captex® 355 product card banner

Abitec Corporation

Captex® 355

Function: Carrier, Solubilizer, Re-Fatting Agent, Lubricant, Conditioner, Anti-Adhesion Promoter, Bioavailability Enhancer, Anti-Sticking Agent, Release Agent, Emollient, Stabilizer, Dietary Supplement, Texturizing Agent, Controlled Release Agent, Occlusive, Viscosity Modifier, Emulsifier, Thickener

CAS Number: 65381-09-1

Labeling Claims: Phthalates-free, Gluten-free, CMR Substances-free, Melamine-free, Organic, PAH-Free, Allergen-free, Halal, Kosher, Sustainable, Non-GMO, Nanomaterials-free, Not Tested on Animals, Aflatoxin-free, TSE-free, Dioxin-free, Not Listed In California Proposition 65, Mycotoxins-free, Naturally Derived, PCB-free, Keto, Vegetarian, Ethylene Oxide-free, BSE-free, Conflict minerals-free, Clean at Sephora, Metal-free, Pesticide-free, Vegan, Solvent-free

Certifications & Compliance: RSPO Certified Sustainable Palm Oil, BRC Certified, GFSI Certified, cGMP, ECOCERT GREENLIFE, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), FDA Approved, The Food Allergen Labeling & Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA), RoHS Compliant, Kosher, ISO 14001, Halal, Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS), RSPO Supply Chain Certified, GMP, Vegan, ISO 9001

Dosage Form: Tablets, Soft Gels

Captex® 355 Medium-Chain Triglycerides originate from vegetable-based sources (typically palm, palm kernel and/or coconut). These food-grade, safe, responsibly sourced ingredients are best known for their functional benefits as emulsifiers, solubilizers and refatting agents for use in a range of markets and applications. They are preferred lipophilic vehicles and solvents for use in various delivery systems, but are most well-known for their numerous health benefits in areas such as weight management, energy, and cognition.ABITEC offers a variety of C8 (caprylic) and C10 (capric) variations to suite your formulation requirements.

Pestell Nutri Az C product card banner

Pestell

Pestell Nutri AZ C

Function: Toxin Binder

A multi-functional complex, specially designed to help maintain production efficiency and alleviate feed refusal problems related to mycotoxins and dietary toxin contamination.

Keraglo® Hydrolyzed Keratin (Food Grade) product card banner

NutriScience Innovations

KeraGLO® Hydrolyzed Keratin (Food Grade)

Function: Protein Source, Dietary Supplement, Supplement

Features: High Digestability

End Uses: Dietary Supplements, Functional Beverages, Candies, Beverage Products

Keratin is a structural protein that connects epithelial (skin) cells together and protects them from environmental damage. However, keratin itself is insoluble and is poorly absorbed in the body. Hydrolyzed keratin is keratin protein that has been broken down into smaller molecules and is readily absorbed in the body when consumed orally. Our KeraGLO® Hydrolyzed Keratin is from poultry feathers and is extensively hydrolyzed to improve absorption. Other forms of hydrolyzed keratin are only partially hydrolyzed and are poorly absorbed and thus may be of limited benefit when used in Beauty from Within products.

Renergy™ product card banner

Micronutrients

Renergy™

Function: Supplement

Features: Optimizes Ruminal Health

Labeling Claims: Natural

Certifications & Compliance: FAMI-QS, AFIA International Safe Feed/Safe Food

Ingredient Name: Citric Acid

Animal Species: Goat, Cows, Buffalo, Ox, Sheep, Cattle

Renergy™ is a dietary supplement for ruminants that increase feed efficiency by promoting ruminal propionate production.

Devenish Nutrition Extractazyme product card banner

Devenish Nutrition

Devenish Nutrition ExtractaZyme

Function: Enzyme

ExtractaZyme is a multi-enzyme preparation specifically tailored to increase nutrient extraction from raw materials by cell wall and structural carbohydrates (CH) hydrolysis. Extrazyme improves the digestibility of feed by breaking down the ANFs (anti-nutritional factors) making nutrients more available for the animal. This both enables formulation flexibility, and delivers feed cost reduction.

Devenish Nutrition Soychlor product card banner

Devenish Nutrition

Devenish Nutrition SoyChlor

Features: Improve Feed Palatability

Animal Species: Cows, Sheep, Goat, Deer, Buffalo, Cattle

SoyChlor is a dietic complementary feed for pre-calving cows. Designed to produce a "Partial Anionic" diet, it is a unique provision of chloride for metabolic acidification providing high levels of rumen undegradable protein from heat treated Soya and Distillers.

Hamlet Protein Hp Fiberstart product card banner

Hamlet Protein

Hamlet Protein HP FiberStart

Function: Fiber, Protein Source

Features: Improves Growth Performance

Hamlet Protein HP FiberStart is a concept of enzymatically co-processed protein and fiber raw materials. The result is a functional ingredient, which contains fermentable fibers.

Pestell Alliumix – Garlic Extract product card banner

Pestell

Pestell Alliumix – Garlic Extract

Applications: Animal Health & Nutrition, Feed Production & Processing, Ruminants

Alliumix is a dried garlic extract for livestock and is composed of natural flavoring agents. When fed to cattle, they will exhale and sweat repelling aromatic compounds that repel insects.

Anpario Salkil product card banner

Anpario

Anpario Salkil

Function: Eubiotics

Animal Species: Turkey, Ducks, Geese & Game Birds, Laying Hens, Broilers

Features: Improves Digestability & Intestinal Health

Salkil is the market leading Acid Based Eubiotic (ABE) developed for poultry, comprising of formic and propionic acids blended onto Anpario’s unique mineral carrier system.

Drakeol® 9 Lt Min Oil Nf product card banner

Calumet

Drakeol® 9 LT MIN OIL NF

Function: Lubricant, Binder, Release Agent, Ointment Base, Anti-Sticking Agent, Carrier, Laxative

Physical Form: Liquid

Labeling Claims: Halal, Kosher, GMO-free, BSE-free, Vegan

Chemical Name: White Mineral Oil

Drakeol® 9 LT MIN OIL NF is a white oils are among the most versatile products in the world, making them a standard preference across diverse industries. Due to their extreme purity, white oils provide an effective use as a base, emollient, lubricant, release agent, binder, or excipient in multiple product applications.

Jubicide Paa (Per Acetic Acid 15%) Powerful Oxidizing Agent And Disinfectant product card banner

Jubilant Ingrevia Limited

Jubicide PAA (Per Acetic Acid 15%) Powerful Oxidizing Agent and Disinfectant

Ingredient Name: Peracetic Acid

Function: Oxidizing Agent, Anti-Microbial Agent, Anti-Fungal Agent, Intermediate, Bleaching Agent, Disinfectant

Labeling Claims: Environmentally Friendly, Non-Toxic

Features: Anti-fungal, Environmental friendly, Anti-bacterial, Disinfection, Low pH

Chemical Name: Peracetic acid

Jubicide PAA (15% Peracetic Acid) is used an effective sanitizer, Dis-infectant, Sterilant and Bleaching agent for a number of Industries. It has been used for years for disinfection in food & beverage, water treatment and for bleaching and sterilization applications in healthcare and Laundry. It is used as a powerful oxidant and due to its complete biodegradability into harmless - no residue products like acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water, it is a safe and environment friendly option for disinfection.

Guardian™ product card banner

Alltech

GUARDIAN™

Animal Species: Piglets, Swine

Guardian™ is Alltech’s newest technology, aiming at improving the safety of animal feed and its components. The research shows that Guardian promotes better feed safety and feed hygiene by mitigating potential risks. It gives producers peace of mind that their herds are safe from outside risks and threats.

Pestell Flavour – Garlic product card banner

Pestell

Pestell Flavour – Garlic

Function: Flavoring Agent

Flavour – Garlic Flavour has the effect of fresh Garlic juice….made from garlic oil, not dried product, for the most effective and long lasting taste. It is Used as a palatability enhancer, and observed as a deterrent for flies in the summer months.

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum Tncs product card banner

Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum TNCS

Function: Viscosity Modifier, Stabilizer, Thickener

Chemical Family: Gums & Hydrocolloids

Xanthan Gum TNCS is a clarified technical grade 80 mesh type. It is specifically suitable for clear solution applications such as gels or window cleaners. It has excellent thickening and stabilizing properties for a variety of cleaner and detergent applications.

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum Tnas-cs product card banner

Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG

Jungbunzlauer™ Xanthan Gum TNAS-CS

Function: Viscosity Modifier, Stabilizer, Thickener

Chemical Family: Gums & Hydrocolloids

Xanthan Gum TNAS-CS is the acid stable technical grade 80 mesh type. It is specifically suitable for very low pH applications such as toilet cleaners or descalers. It has excellent thickening and stabilizing properties for a variety of cleaner and detergent applications.