Tapes, Labels & Adhesives

1,742 products found for Tapes, Labels & Adhesives in Printing & Packaging
Dytek® Bhmt product card banner

INVISTA

Dytek® BHMT

Brand: Dytek

Applications: Infrastructure, Roads & Paving, Tapes & Labels, Coatings & Markings

Product Families: Amines, Intermediates, Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers

Chemical Family: Amines

DYTEK® BHMT (bis-hexamethylene triamine) is a long chain triamine that is used as a binder in asphalt, as a phosphonate scavenger and flocculant in oil & gas applications, and as a hardener in epoxy coating and adhesive applications.

Sylfat™ Fa1 product card banner

Kraton

SYLFAT™ FA1

Brand: SYLFAT

Applications: Bookbinding, Other Tapes, Labels & Graphics Applications, Other Tapes, Labels & Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Fatty Acids

SYLFAT FA1 Tall Oil Fatty Acid (TOFA) combines a long carbon chain (C18) of relatively high unsaturation with the acid functionality of a carboxyl group (-COOH).

Tritan™ Tx1001 product card banner

Eastman

TRITAN™ TX1001

Brand: TRITAN

Applications: Tapes & Labels, Label & Tape Adhesives, Consumer Electronics

Product Families: Polyesters, Polyesters & Copolyesters

Chemical Family: Polyesters

Polymer Name: Copolyester Resin

End Uses: White Goods & Small Appliances, Household Goods, Consumer Applications

Eastman Tritan™ TX1001 is an amorphous copolyester with excellent appearance and clarity. Tritan TX1001 contains a mold release derived from vegetable based sources. Its most outstanding features are excellent toughness, hydrolytic stability, and heat and chemical resistance. This new-generation copolyester can also be molded into various applications without incorporating high levels of residual stress. Combined with Tritan's outstanding chemical resistance and hydrolytic stability, these features give molded products enhanced durability in the dishwasher environment, which can expose products to high heat, humidity and aggressive cleaning detergents. Tritan TX1001 may be used in repeated use food contact articles under United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. Tritan TX1001 is certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 51 for Food Equipment Materials and is also certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61 – Drinking Water System Components-Health Effects.

Solprene® 1205 product card banner

Dynasol Elastomers

Solprene® 1205

Brand: Solprene

Applications: Textile Manufacturing, Pavement, Highways, Roads & Bridges, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Functional Additives, Other Resins & Binders, Styrene Butadiene Rubbers (SBR)

Chemical Family: Styrenics, Styrene Copolymers

Polymer Name: Solution Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SSBR)

End Uses: Asphalt Modification, Footwear

Solprene 1205 is a linear random-block styrene-butadiene copolymer with a total content of 25% of styrene, 17.5% is present as a polystyrene block.It has a non-staining antioxidant system; FDA approved for use in food contact applications. Is essentially gel free with a clear color.Solprene 1205 is an excellent modifier for asphalt, formulations of caulks and sealants; it is also an excellent processing aid for most polymers, giving a good resistance to low temperature. Used in extruded goods, soles and heels. It can also be used as modifier for thermoplastic resins and in adhesive formulations.

Estron™ Acetate Yarn product card banner

Eastman

ESTRON™ Acetate Yarn

Brand: ESTRON

Applications: Other Consumer Goods Applications, Technical Fabrics, Apparel

Product Families: Cellulosics

Chemical Family: Cellulose & Cellulosics

Polymer Name: Cellulose Acetate (CA)

End Uses: Fabrics, Bcf Yarn, Textile Applications

Fabrics woven or knit from acetate filament yarns have the look and feel of luxury. Consisting of pure cellulose acetate, Eastman Estron™ acetate yarn is available in bright and dull lusters.Because of its inherent whiteness, Eastman Estron™ acetate yarn can be dyed to render apparel fabrics that are especially bright and true in color.

Dytek® Bhmt-hp product card banner

INVISTA

Dytek® BHMT-HP

Brand: Dytek

Applications: Infrastructure, Roads & Paving, Tapes & Labels, Coatings & Markings

Product Families: Intermediates, Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Catalysts & Initiators

Chemical Family: Triamines

DYTEK® BHMT HP (bis-hexamethylene triamine) is a high purity (>95%) triamine that is used in applications where purity is critical such as phosphonate scavenger and flocculant in oil & gas applications and as a hardener in epoxy coating and adhesive applications.

Epikote™ Resin 828 product card banner

Hexion Inc.

EPIKOTE™ Resin 828

Brand: EPIKOTE

Applications: Case & Carton Sealing, Floor Coatings, Tapes & Labels

Product Families: Epoxies

Chemical Family: Epoxy & Epoxy Derivatives, Bisphenol Epoxy Resins

EPIKOTE Resin 828 is a medium viscosity liquid epoxy resin produced from bisphenol A resin and epichlorohydrin. It contains no diluent. EPIKOTE 828 provides good pigment wetting and good resistance to filler settling and a high level of mechanical and chemical resistance properties in cured state. However, as an unmodified pure bisphenol A resin, EPIKOTE 828 is prone to crystallise on storage, particularly in cold conditions (see bulletin EK 1.5.11 for a description of the laboratory test method used to determine the crystallisation tendency of EPIKOTE resins). Note, EPIKOTE 827, 828 and 828 LVEL are unmodified resins of similar type and performance; they offer the formulator a choice of viscosity.

Sylfat™ 2 product card banner

Kraton

SYLFAT™ 2

Brand: SYLFAT

Applications: Bookbinding, Other Tapes, Labels & Graphics Applications, Other Tapes, Labels & Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Fatty Acids

SYLFAT 2 Tall Oil Fatty Acid (TOFA) has a high fatty acid content and a low content of rosin acids and unsaponifiables. It provides a combination of light colour, good colour stability and air-drying properties. The utility of SYLFAT 2 Tall Oil Fatty Acid can be found in the long carbon chain (C18), acid function of the carboxyl group (COOH) and unsaturation of the double bonds.

Elvace Cps 744 product card banner

HB Fuller

ELVACE CPS 744

Brand: ELVACE

Applications: Footwear, Case & Carton Sealing, Textile Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Other Chemical Families

A vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer.

Antimussol® Z 70 product card banner

Clariant

Antimussol® Z 70

Brand: Antimussol

Applications: Other Printing & Packaging Applications, Decorative Paints & Coatings, Decorative Paints

Product Families: Functional Additives, Foam Control

Antimussol Z-70 is a liquid foam control agent with very low silicone content for adhesives, coatings and inks based on synthetic latex emulsions. Antimussol Z-70 is very effective during the mixing, dispersing and milling processes. Due to its components, it is easily dispersed and acts immediately to release entrapped air in foam bubbles and to prevent undesired foam built-up. It maintains its efficiency during long periods of agitation. The recommended dosage is 2.4-3.2 kg of Antimussol Z-70 for 1000 liters of paint. This amount is sufficient to control the foam efficiently.In adhesives we recommend dosages between 1-2 % of Antimussol Z-70 based on the total latex solids. This defoamer can be used as it is or as a water dispersion.

Regalite™ R1100 Cg Hydrocarbon Resin product card banner

Eastman

Regalite™ R1100 CG Hydrocarbon Resin

Brand: Regalite

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Film Formers

End Uses: Lipstick

Regalite™ R1100 CG Hydrocarbon Resin is a cosmetic grade resin derived from petrochemical feedstocks. This water-white, thermoplastic resin is fully hydrogenated providing excellent stability. It has excellent solubility and compatibility with non-polar ingredients in cosmetic applications, contributing both adhesion and gloss.

Uni-rez™ 110 product card banner

Kraton

UNI-REZ™ 110

Brand: UNI-REZ

Applications: Appliances & Electronics, Adhesives, Transportation Assembly

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

UNI-REZ 110 polyamide resin is an alcohol soluble / co-solvent type resin with excellent solvent release and blocking properties. UNI-REZ 110 polyamide resin was developed for release lacquers but can also be used as a modifying resin to improve hardness.

Uni-rez™ 2930 product card banner

Kraton

UNI-REZ™ 2930

Brand: UNI-REZ

Applications: Appliances & Electronics, Adhesives, Transportation Assembly

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

UNI-REZ 2930 polyamide resin is a co-solvent type resin which is soluble in alcohols, but typically requires mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols for gel stability. UNI-REZ 2930 polyamide resin provides fast solvent release and good grease resistance in flexographic / gravure inks for plastic substrates and is especially effective as an overprint lacquer.

Sukorez® Su-640 product card banner

Kolon Industries

SUKOREZ® SU-640

Brand: SUKOREZ

Applications: Construction Adhesives, Transportation Assembly, Textile Manufacturing

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Aliphatics

SUKOREZ® SU-640 is a white thermoplastic resin obtained from the copolymerization and hydrogenation of C5 aliphatic olefin and diolefin generated in the thermal-depolymerization process of naphtha. This product offers excellent thermal stability and compatibility with various elastomers such as Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) and Styrene-Isoprene-Styrene copolymer (SIS) so this product is used as tackifier resin for hot melt adhesive (HMA) and hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive (HMPSA), as well as polypropylene (PP) modifier. SUKOREZ® SU-640 is water white cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon resin. The major usage are a modifier in blends with polymers for filmic application and tackifier for EVA, SIS, SEBS block copolymers, metallocene polyolefins and APAO.

Paracril™ Bjlt-m50 product card banner

Dynasol Elastomers

Paracril™ BJLT-M50

Brand: Paracril

Applications: Transportation Assembly, Other Devices & Assemblies, Pharmaceutical Processing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Nitrile Rubbers

Chemical Family: Nitrile Rubbers

Polymer Name: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)

End Uses: Footwear, Hoses, Automotive Applications

Paracril BJLTM50 is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile, cold polymerized with a non-staining stabilizer. Packing

Agitan® 109 product card banner

Munzing

AGITAN® 109

Brand: AGITAN

Applications: Other Parts & Components, Other Printing Applications, Thermal Transfer Printing

Product Families: Foam Control

Chemical Family: Silica, Blends & Combinations

AGITAN 109 is an emulsion with excellent stability and defoaming persistency. The defoamer is miscible with water in all ratios. It's recommended for architectural coatings, building products, printing inks, adhesives and polymerization processes.

Dymerex® Rosin Polymerized product card banner

Eastman

Dymerex® Rosin Polymerized

Brand: Dymerex

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Functional Additives, Alkyds

Chemical Family: Rosins, Alkyds

Dymerex™ modified rosin is a pale, acidic, thermoplastic, high softening point resin. It is composed predominately of dimeric acids derived from rosin with lesser amounts of monomeric resin acids and neutral materials of rosin origin. Dymerex™ modified resin has high resistance to oxidation and does not crystallize from solutions or from solid compositions. It is compatible with many natural and synthetic film formers and rubbers. Being an acidic resin, it reacts readily with polyalcohols or hydrated lime to yield high melting derivatives.

Licotas™ Pe 310 Powder Tp product card banner

Clariant

Licotas™ PE 310 powder TP

Brand: Licotas

Applications: Case & Carton Sealing, Thermal Transfer Printing, Screen Printing

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Surface Modifiers, Dispersing & Wetting Additives

Licotas PE 310 powder TP is a low molecular weight, non-polar polyethylene wax.

Martinal® On-310 S product card banner

Huber Engineered Materials

Martinal® ON-310 S

Brand: Martinal

Applications: Transportation Assembly, Textile Manufacturing, Medical Tapes & Adhesives

Product Families: Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Aluminum Compounds, Trihydrates

Martinal® ON-310 S is a 10 micron, ground aluminum hydroxide used as a flame retardant and smoke suppressant, produced in Bergheim, Germany.

Monument Chemical Tetrahydrofuran (Thf) product card banner

Monument Chemical

Monument Chemical Tetrahydrofuran (THF)

Applications: Other Tapes, Labels & Adhesives, Other Tapes, Labels & Graphics Applications, Other Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Applications

Product Families: Ethers

Chemical Family: Ethers, Furan & Furanics

End Uses: Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a clear, colorless liquid with an ether‐like odor. The principal end uses of THF include PTMEG, pharmaceutical solvent, adhesives, PVC cement and magnetic tape. Due to its' tendency to form peroxides during storage, THF is inhibited with BHT.

Hdk® N20 product card banner

Wacker Chemie AG

HDK® N20

Brand: HDK

Applications: Inkjet Printing, Case & Carton Sealing, Gravure Printing

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Stabilizers, Rheology Modifiers

Chemical Family: Cyclodextrins, Silicon-based Compounds, Silica

End Uses: Antiperspirants & Deodorants, Anti-Aging Products, Around Eye Creams & Gels

HDK® N20 is Synthetic, hydrophilic, amorphous silica and produced via flame hydrolysis. Standard product for industrial applications.

Microsere® 5806A product card banner

The International Group Inc

MICROSERE® 5806A

Brand: MICROSERE

Applications: Flexible Packaging Adhesives, Lamination Tubes, Craft & Hobby

Product Families: Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Waxes

MICROSERE® 5806A is a high-melt, amber-colored microcrystalline that is used in a variety of applications.

Abitol™ E Hydroabietyl Alcohol product card banner

Eastman

ABITOL™ E Hydroabietyl Alcohol

Brand: ABITOL

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Rosins

Abitol™ E resin hydroabietyl alcohol is a colorless, tacky, balsamic resin. Its tackiness and extremely pale color, combined with its solubility in common organic solvents and compatibility with resins, film-formers, and oils, have led to its use as a resinous plasticizer and/or tackifier in plastics, lacquers, inks and adhesives. Chemically, Abitol E resin is a high molecular weight, primary, monohydric alcohol derived from rosin acids that have been hydrogenated to reduce unsaturation. Abitol E resin undergoes the general types of chemical reaction common to most primary alcohols.

Vynova™ S6502 product card banner

VYNOVA

VYNOVA™ S6502

Brand: VYNOVA

Applications: Cooling & Climate, Appliances & Electronics, Fuel Systems

Product Families: Vinyl Polymers

Chemical Family: Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives

Polymer Name: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

End Uses: Flexible Films, Tape, Medical/Healthcare Applications

VYNOVA™ S6502 is a high molecular weight and high porosity vinyl chloride homopolymer. It is a general purpose resin suitable for extrusion, calendering of both rigid and flexible PVC articles: profiles, sheets & films, compounds, and flooring.

Gabriel® Pkhp-200 Powder product card banner

Gabriel Performance Products

Gabriel® PKHP-200 Powder

Brand: Gabriel

Applications: Excipients & Coatings, Pharmaceutical Coatings, Screen Printing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

Gabriel Phenoxy PK™HP-200 is a micronized powder–grade Phenoxy resin with a particle size of approximately 110 microns. Phenoxy resins (poly hydroxyl ethers) are tough, ductile, amorphous polymers having excellent thermal stability, adhesion and cohesion strength, and excellent vapor barrier properties. Phenoxy resins also react with cross-linkers like isocyanates, phenolic and melamine resins along the backbone hydroxyl groups. PKHP-200 provides for ease of incorporation into liquid resins due to its high surface area; recommended levels of PKHP-200 incorporated into epoxy resins are 5 to 25% depending on the desired mix viscosity.

Eastman Aq™ 55S Polymer product card banner

Eastman

Eastman AQ™ 55S Polymer

Brand: Eastman AQ

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Polyesters, Dispersing & Wetting Additives, Film Formers

Chemical Family: Polyesters

End Uses: Corn & Callus Treatment, Eye Liner, Hair Styling Products

Eastman AQ™ 55S polymer is a sulfopolyester that disperses directly in hot water without the assistance of surfactants or other additives. AQ 55S polymer aids the dispersion of many hydrophobic ingredients in water-based products and forms clear films at room temperature from aqueous dispersions. Eastman AQ ™55S has good film integrity when combined with other cosmetic ingredients and is the preferred AQ polymer to improve water and smudge resistance of water-based makeup and mascaras. In hairstyling products, AQ 55S provides excellent hold under high-humidity conditions and stiffness that is easily modified with plasticizers and thickeners. The "S" indicates AQ 55S is supplied as solid pellets.

Gabriel® Pkhw-35 product card banner

Gabriel Performance Products

Gabriel® PKHW-35

Brand: Gabriel

Applications: Excipients & Coatings, Pharmaceutical Coatings, Screen Printing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

Gabriel Phenoxy PK™HW-35 is a waterborne anionically-stabilized colloidal dispersion of phenoxy resin PKHH designed for thermoset coatings and adhesives. The dispersion is a non-Newtonian fluid at room temperature and exhibits very slight thixotropic behavior. Phenoxy resins (polyhydroxyethers) are tough, ductile, amorphous, thermoplastic polymers having excellent thermal stability, adhesive strength, and vapor barrier properties. Phenoxy resins may be crosslinked by reacting its hydroxyl functional groups with isocyanates, melamine resins, or phenolic resins. Crosslinked phenoxy resins exhibit excellent chemical resistance, hardness, and adhesion on many substrates including steel, aluminum, glass, carbon fibers, and plastics such as nylon and polyester (PET). The recommended level of crosslinking range from 5 to 20 phr based on resin solids. PKHW-35 is compatible with most waterborne polyurethanes and acrylics at pH’s greater than 6.5. PKHW-35 is incompatible with acidic materials; low pH media can cause loss of dispersibility and precipitation of the base resin. The addition of PKWH-35 to ambient cure 2k waterborne formulations can improve ultimate film hardness, shorten dry-to-touch times, and improve gloss. Physical properties can be further enhanced with the use of ambient-cure crosslinkers such as aliphatic isocyanates, carbodiimides, polyaziridines, and epoxy silanes. Crosslinkers such as alkylated phenolics and melamine’s are readily dispersed in PKHW-35 to provide shelf-stable, single pack, thermoset formulations. All properly formulated coatings of PKHW-35 display excellent flexibility and surface hardness. PKHW-35 typically contains less than 12% by weight volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) including non-HAP ethylene glycol butyl ether (butyl cellosolve, Glycol Ether EB) and dimethylethanolamine.

Uni-rez™ 111 product card banner

Kraton

UNI-REZ™ 111

Brand: UNI-REZ

Applications: Appliances & Electronics, Adhesives, Transportation Assembly

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

UNI-REZ 111 polyamide resin is an alcohol soluble type resin that is used for flexographic printing. It has balanced properties making it a good choice for general purpose flexographic surface printing.

Piccotex™ 100 product card banner

Eastman

PICCOTEX™ 100

Brand: PICCOTEX

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Aromatics, Acrylics, Acrylates & Methacrylates

Piccotex™ 100 hydrocarbon resin is the medium softening point member of in a series of highly stable, water white, thermoplastic materials based on purified aromatic monomers. These resins have outstanding hot tack; heat sealability; resistance to discoloration; acid, alkali, and moisture resistance; and stability to elevated temperatures encountered in compounding. High initial and retained gloss, and improved application speeds on curtain coating and roll coating equipment. Piccotex™ 100 complies with some FDA regulations for applications involving direct contact with food. Compliance with a given regulation in a specific situation should be verified prior to use in a food contacting application.

Vinnapas® 400 H product card banner

Wacker Chemie AG

VINNAPAS® 400 H

Brand: VINNAPAS

Applications: Adhesives, Textile Manufacturing, Adhesives & Sealants

Product Families: Functional Additives, Other Resins & Binders, Performance Additives

Chemical Family: Ethylene Co-terpolymers, Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives

VINNAPAS® 400 H is a poly(vinyl alcohol) stabilized vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer dispersion with a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 0 °C. It was developed as a higher viscosity, high-performance dispersion offering a superior balance of adhesive/cohesive properties useful in achieving much higher formulation viscosities.

Nipacide® Bk product card banner

Clariant

Nipacide® BK

Brand: Nipacide

Applications: Case & Carton Sealing, Textile Manufacturing, Flexible Packaging Adhesives

Product Families: Functional Additives, Microbial Control & Preservation

Nipacide BK is an in-can biocide basen on Hexahydrotriazine (HHT). Nipacide BK is an aqueous based low toxicity biocide developed for the complete in-can protection of water based products. Nipacide BK is effective against a wide range of microorganisms including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi. Nipacide BK can be used over a wide pH and temperature range.

Royoxy® Rad 9505 product card banner

Gabriel Performance Products

RoyOxy® RAD 9505

Brand: RoyOxy

Applications: Excipients & Coatings, Pharmaceutical Coatings, Screen Printing

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers

Chemical Family: Ethers

A polyglycidyl ether of castor oil. RAD 9505 imparts flexibility, impact resistance, and thermal shock resistance.

Agitan® 282 product card banner

Munzing

AGITAN® 282

Brand: AGITAN

Applications: Other Parts & Components, Other Printing Applications, Thermal Transfer Printing

Product Families: Foam Control

Chemical Family: Mineral Oils, Blends & Combinations

AGITAN 282 has a wide formulation lattitude due to its ease of emulsification. Therefore it is especially suitable for clear coats, non-pigmented systems, low viscous systems and emulsion manufacturing.

Pace 383 product card banner

HB Fuller

Pace 383

Brand: Pace

Applications: Footwear, Case & Carton Sealing, Coated Paper & Paperboard

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

A vinyl acetate homopolymer made in a polyvinyl alcohol colloidal system

Foral™ 85-E Cg Hydrogenated Rosinate product card banner

Eastman

Foral™ 85-E CG Hydrogenated Rosinate

Brand: Foral

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Film Formers

End Uses: Lip Gloss, Other Eye Makeup, Mascara

Foral™ 85-E CG Hydrogenated Rosinate is a cosmetic grade resin derived from the esterification of a highly stabilized gum rosin and glycerol. This light amber, thermoplastic resin has excellent resistance to oxidation and discoloration caused by heat and aging. Foral™ 85-E CG contributes adhesion to various cosmetic and depilatory wax formulations.

Elvace 734 product card banner

HB Fuller

ELVACE 734

Brand: ELVACE

Applications: Footwear, Case & Carton Sealing, Textile Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Other Chemical Families, Ethylene Co-terpolymers

Elvace® 734 was developed as a cost effective vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer emulsion for use in compounding today's packaging and construction adhesives requiring a low VOC content. It offers the adhesive formulator many of the exclusive benefits expected from copolymer emulsions such as good specific adhesion and a tough permanently flexible adhesive film. In addition, Elvace® 734 includes custom features like a faster rate of set and increased water resistance. Overall, the combined features of Elvace® 734 give it a high value to performance ratio which is necessary to compete in today's marketplace.