Other Resins & Binders

1,770 products found for Other Resins & Binders in CASE Ingredients
Lipoxol 300 Med product card banner

Sasol

LIPOXOL 300 MED

Brand: LIPOXOL

Applications: Other Printing & Packaging Applications, Other Paints & Coatings Applications, Other Industrial Applications

Product Families: Stabilizers, Solvents & Carriers, Rheology Modifiers

Chemical Family: Polyglycols, Amines, Polyols

End Uses: Industrial Cleaners, Cosmetics, Textile Applications

A clear liquid polymer soluble in water, LIPOXOL 300 MED is produced by the addition of ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol. For documents specific to a region, please contact Sasol using the 'Request Document' button.

Ms Polymer® S303h product card banner

Kaneka North America

MS POLYMER® S303H

Brand: MS POLYMER

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA MS POLYMER® S303H is a Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. MS Polymer™ S303H has performed successfully in various industrial applications and provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups.

Sylfat™ Fa1 product card banner

Kraton

SYLFAT™ FA1

Brand: SYLFAT

Applications: Bookbinding, Other Tapes, Labels & Graphics Applications, Other Tapes, Labels & Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Fatty Acids

SYLFAT FA1 Tall Oil Fatty Acid (TOFA) combines a long carbon chain (C18) of relatively high unsaturation with the acid functionality of a carboxyl group (-COOH).

Marlon Arl product card banner

Sasol

MARLON ARL

Brand: MARLON

Applications: Fluids & Lubricants, Other Industrial Applications, Other Home & Personal Care Applications

Product Families: Surface Protective Additives, Other Resins & Binders, Intermediates

Chemical Family: Polyolefins, Alkyl Sulfonates

End Uses: Industrial Cleaners, Cosmetics, Industrial Applications

MARLON ARL is powdered alkylbenzene sulfonate, sodium salt with approx. 80% active matter. For documents specific to a region, please contact Sasol using the 'Request Document' button.

Silyl® Max951 product card banner

Kaneka North America

SILYL® MAX951

Brand: SILYL

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA SILYL® MAX951 is an acrylic modified Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. SILYL MAX951™ has performed successfully in various industrial applications and provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups.

Ms Polymer® S203h product card banner

Kaneka North America

MS POLYMER® S203H

Brand: MS POLYMER

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA MS POLYMER® S203H is a Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. MS Polymer™ S203H has performed successfully in various industrial applications and provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups

Kraton™ Fg1901 G product card banner

Kraton

Kraton™ FG1901 G

Brand: Kraton

Applications: Industrial Manufacturing, Medical Tapes & Adhesives, Adhesives & Sealants

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE-S)

Chemical Family: Styrenics, Styrene Copolymers

Polymer Name: Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene (SEBS)

End Uses: Footwear, Asphalt Modification

Kraton FG1901 G is a clear, linear triblock copolymer based on styrene and ethylene/butylene with a polystyrene content of 30%. It is supplied from North America in the physical form identified below. FG1901 GT - supplied as a dusted pellet Kraton FG1901 G is used as a modifier of bitumen and polymers. It is also suitable as an ingredient in formulating compounds for footwear applications and may be used in formulating adhesives, sealants, and coatings.

Solprene® 1205 product card banner

Dynasol Elastomers

Solprene® 1205

Brand: Solprene

Applications: Textile Manufacturing, Pavement, Highways, Roads & Bridges, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Functional Additives, Other Resins & Binders, Styrene Butadiene Rubbers (SBR)

Chemical Family: Styrenics, Styrene Copolymers

Polymer Name: Solution Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SSBR)

End Uses: Asphalt Modification, Footwear

Solprene 1205 is a linear random-block styrene-butadiene copolymer with a total content of 25% of styrene, 17.5% is present as a polystyrene block.It has a non-staining antioxidant system; FDA approved for use in food contact applications. Is essentially gel free with a clear color.Solprene 1205 is an excellent modifier for asphalt, formulations of caulks and sealants; it is also an excellent processing aid for most polymers, giving a good resistance to low temperature. Used in extruded goods, soles and heels. It can also be used as modifier for thermoplastic resins and in adhesive formulations.

Poly Bd® R45v product card banner

Cray Valley

Poly bd® R45V

Brand: Poly bd

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Butadienes

Poly bd® resins are low molecular weight, hydroxyl-terminated homopolymers of butadiene. These hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) resins are characterized by low volatiles content, low glass transition temperatures, excellent hydrophobicity and a highly reactive functionality.

Silyl® Sax350 product card banner

Kaneka North America

SILYL® SAX350

Brand: SILYL

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA SILYL® SAX350 is a Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. SILYL SAX350™ has performed successfully in various industrial applications and provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups.

Silyl® Sax220 product card banner

Kaneka North America

SILYL® SAX220

Brand: SILYL

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA SILYL® SAX220 is a Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. SILYL SAX220™ has performed successfully in various industrial and construction applications. SILYL SAX220™ provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups.

Kraton™ D4150 K product card banner

Kraton

Kraton™ D4150 K

Brand: Kraton

Applications: Industrial Manufacturing, Medical Tapes & Adhesives, Adhesives & Sealants

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE-S)

Polymer Name: Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS)

End Uses: Footwear, Asphalt Modification

Kraton D4150 K is a linear triblock copolymer based on styrene and butadiene with a polystyrene content of 31%. It is supplied from North America in the physical form identified below. Kraton D4150 KT - supplied as a dusted porous pellet Kraton D4150 KU - supplied as an undusted porous pellet Kraton D4150 K is used as a modifier of bitumen and polymers. It is also suitable as an ingredient in formulating compounds for footwear applications, molded and extruded goods applications and may be used in formulating adhesives, sealants, and coatings.

Silyl® Sax400 product card banner

Kaneka North America

SILYL® SAX400

Brand: SILYL

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyethers

KANEKA SILYL® SAX400 is a Silyl-Terminated Polyether (STPE) used as a base resin for producing high performance moisture cure sealants, adhesives, and coatings. SILYL SAX400™ has performed successfully in various industrial applications and provides well-balanced properties such as durability, reactivity, and storage stability. This unique and highly valued balance of attributes is derived from the polyether polymer backbone coupled with the methyldimethoxysilane functional groups.

Kraton™ Md1653 M product card banner

Kraton

Kraton™ MD1653 M

Brand: Kraton

Applications: Industrial Manufacturing, Medical Tapes & Adhesives, Adhesives & Sealants

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE-S)

Polymer Name: Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene (SEBS)

End Uses: Food Packaging, Toys

Kraton MD1653 M is a clear, linear triblock copolymer based on styrene and ethylene/butylene with a polystyrene content of 30%. It is supplied from North America in the physical form identified below. Kraton MD1653 MO supplied as an organic dusted dense pellet Kraton MD1653 M is used as a modifier of polymers. It is also suitable as an ingredient in formulating adhesives, sealants and coatings. Note: This Kraton polymer product is a development product. Thus, its properties and chemical composition may change based on market feedback. Kraton Polymers reserves the right to change specifications and/or discontinue production of the product.

Kraton™ D1193 P product card banner

Kraton

Kraton™ D1193 P

Brand: Kraton

Applications: Industrial Manufacturing, Medical Tapes & Adhesives, Adhesives & Sealants

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE-S)

Polymer Name: Styrene Isoprene Styrene (SIS)

End Uses: Asphalt Modification

Kraton D1193 P is a clear, linear triblock copolymer based on styrene and isoprene, with a polystyrene content of 24%. It is supplied from North America in the physical form identified below. Kraton D1193 PT - supplied as a dusted dense pellet Kraton D1193 P is used as an ingredient in formulating adhesives, sealants and coatings. It may also find use as a modifier of bitumen or thermoplastics and in compound formulations.

Kuraray Poval™ 25-98 R product card banner

Kuraray

Kuraray Poval™ 25-98 R

Brand: Kuraray Poval

Applications: Inkjet Printing, Coated Paper & Paperboard, Food & Beverage Packaging

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyvinyl Alcohols & Esters

KURARAY POVAL™ 25-98 R by Kuraray is a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) specialty grade manufactured by alcoholysis of polyvinyl acetate. It exhibits high molecular weight, good cohesion, good adhesion to fibers-, fillers- and pigments. Its molecular structure contains peculiar functional groups that is silanol groups. The silanol groups are reactive with inorganic substances such as silica or alumina. KURARAY POVAL™ 25-98 R can be applied with inorganic substances to form water resistant films. Recommended for adhesives.

Kuraray Poval™ 22-88 S2 product card banner

Kuraray

Kuraray Poval™ 22-88 S2

Brand: Kuraray Poval

Applications: Inkjet Printing, Coated Paper & Paperboard, Food & Beverage Packaging

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyvinyl Alcohols & Esters

KURARAY POVAL™ 22-88 S2 (formerly KURARAY POVAL™ PVA-217S) by Kuraray is a water soluble, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) grade manufactured by alcoholysis of polyvinyl acetate. Exhibits high molecular weight, good cohesion, good adhesion to fibers-, fillers- and pigments. It provides extension of the open time, increase of the setting speed and influence on the rheology. KURARAY POVAL™ 22-88 S2 is recommended for the modification of emulsion adhesives.

Gp Brsd-2112 product card banner

Georgia-Pacific Chemicals

GP BRSD-2112

Brand: GP

Applications: Transportation Assembly, Industrial Manufacturing, Furniture Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Other Thermoset Resins

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

GP® BRSD-2112 coating/adhesive resin is a liquid heat-reactive phenolic-based resin solution.

Sylfat™ 2 product card banner

Kraton

SYLFAT™ 2

Brand: SYLFAT

Applications: Bookbinding, Other Tapes, Labels & Graphics Applications, Other Tapes, Labels & Adhesives

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Fatty Acids

SYLFAT 2 Tall Oil Fatty Acid (TOFA) has a high fatty acid content and a low content of rosin acids and unsaponifiables. It provides a combination of light colour, good colour stability and air-drying properties. The utility of SYLFAT 2 Tall Oil Fatty Acid can be found in the long carbon chain (C18), acid function of the carboxyl group (COOH) and unsaturation of the double bonds.

Elvace Cps 744 product card banner

HB Fuller

ELVACE CPS 744

Brand: ELVACE

Applications: Footwear, Case & Carton Sealing, Textile Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Other Chemical Families

A vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer.

Nafol 1214 product card banner

Sasol

NAFOL 1214

Brand: NAFOL

Applications: Fluids & Lubricants, Other Printing & Packaging Applications, Other Paints & Coatings Applications

Product Families: Other Additives, Performance Additives, Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Polyolefins, Alcohols

End Uses: Industrial Cleaners, Textile Applications, Oil/Gas Applications

NAFOL Alcohols are blends of high purity linear primary alcohols with even-numbered carbon chain lengths, based on renewable or petrochemical resources. For documents specific to a region, please contact Sasol using the 'Request Document' button.

Regalite™ R1100 Cg Hydrocarbon Resin product card banner

Eastman

Regalite™ R1100 CG Hydrocarbon Resin

Brand: Regalite

Applications: Sealants & Caulks, Construction Adhesives, Industrial Manufacturing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Film Formers

End Uses: Lipstick

Regalite™ R1100 CG Hydrocarbon Resin is a cosmetic grade resin derived from petrochemical feedstocks. This water-white, thermoplastic resin is fully hydrogenated providing excellent stability. It has excellent solubility and compatibility with non-polar ingredients in cosmetic applications, contributing both adhesion and gloss.

Uni-rez™ 110 product card banner

Kraton

UNI-REZ™ 110

Brand: UNI-REZ

Applications: Appliances & Electronics, Adhesives, Transportation Assembly

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

UNI-REZ 110 polyamide resin is an alcohol soluble / co-solvent type resin with excellent solvent release and blocking properties. UNI-REZ 110 polyamide resin was developed for release lacquers but can also be used as a modifying resin to improve hardness.

Uni-rez™ 2930 product card banner

Kraton

UNI-REZ™ 2930

Brand: UNI-REZ

Applications: Appliances & Electronics, Adhesives, Transportation Assembly

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

UNI-REZ 2930 polyamide resin is a co-solvent type resin which is soluble in alcohols, but typically requires mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols for gel stability. UNI-REZ 2930 polyamide resin provides fast solvent release and good grease resistance in flexographic / gravure inks for plastic substrates and is especially effective as an overprint lacquer.

Sukorez® Su-640 product card banner

Kolon Industries

SUKOREZ® SU-640

Brand: SUKOREZ

Applications: Construction Adhesives, Transportation Assembly, Textile Manufacturing

Product Families: Rheology Modifiers & Stabilizers, Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Aliphatics

SUKOREZ® SU-640 is a white thermoplastic resin obtained from the copolymerization and hydrogenation of C5 aliphatic olefin and diolefin generated in the thermal-depolymerization process of naphtha. This product offers excellent thermal stability and compatibility with various elastomers such as Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) and Styrene-Isoprene-Styrene copolymer (SIS) so this product is used as tackifier resin for hot melt adhesive (HMA) and hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive (HMPSA), as well as polypropylene (PP) modifier. SUKOREZ® SU-640 is water white cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon resin. The major usage are a modifier in blends with polymers for filmic application and tackifier for EVA, SIS, SEBS block copolymers, metallocene polyolefins and APAO.

Kuraray Poval™ 8-88 product card banner

Kuraray

Kuraray Poval™ 8-88

Brand: Kuraray Poval

Applications: Tile & Grout, Adhesives, Flexible Packaging Adhesives

Product Families: Vinyl Polymers, Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives, Polyvinyl Alcohols & Esters

Polymer Name: Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

End Uses: Mortar, Tile Adhesives, Textile Sizing

KURARAY POVAL™ 8-88 by Kuraray is a polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) having varying degree of polymerization and hydrolysis. It is a water-soluble polymer manufactured by alcoholysis of polyvinyl acetate. It is notable for its good bonding strength and pigment binding capacity because PVAs have such good cohesion and good adhesion to fibers, fillers as well as pigments. KURARAY POVAL™ 8-88 is used in a similar manner as natural products such as casein as well as starch and its degraded derivatives (for example dextrin) as raw material for the production of aqueous adhesive solution. In comparison to dextrin and casein it has the advantage of a more uniform chemical structure and greater adhesion, being obtained with minimum raw material requirements. It features water-solubility, excellent film forming characteristics, high tensile strength and elasticity, as well as resistance against organic solvents and dispersing power. For the modification of aqueous adhesives its aqueous solution can be added to polymer emulsions already stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol which affects the extension of the open time, increase of the setting speed and influence on the rheology. It is biodegradable and recyclable. KURARAY POVAL™ 8-88 is used in producing silicon base paper that are further used as release paper for PSA labels and also in remoistenable adhesives which are employed mainly in the paper processing industry, films applications.

Daotan® Tw 6450/30Wa product card banner

allnex

DAOTAN® TW 6450/30WA

Brand: DAOTAN

Applications: Other Specialty Coatings, Glass Coatings, Consumer Electronics

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

DAOTAN® TW 6450/30WA is a polycarbonate based aqueous aliphatic polyurethane dispersion. It is recommended as the NMP / NEP- free alternative for Daotan™ (V)TW 1236. When dried at ambient temperatures, it creates clear, crack- free films without further addition of organic solvents or additives. These films exhibit excellent elasticity and mechanical properties as well as very good adhesion to different plastic substrates

Paracril™ Bjlt-m50 product card banner

Dynasol Elastomers

Paracril™ BJLT-M50

Brand: Paracril

Applications: Transportation Assembly, Other Devices & Assemblies, Pharmaceutical Processing

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Nitrile Rubbers

Chemical Family: Nitrile Rubbers

Polymer Name: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)

End Uses: Footwear, Hoses, Automotive Applications

Paracril BJLTM50 is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile, cold polymerized with a non-staining stabilizer. Packing

Kuraray Poval™ 4-98 product card banner

Kuraray

Kuraray Poval™ 4-98

Brand: Kuraray Poval

Applications: Other Industrial Applications, Labels, Food & Beverage Packaging

Product Families: Vinyl Polymers, Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives, Polyvinyl Alcohols & Esters

Polymer Name: Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

End Uses: Barrier Coatings, Labels

KURARAY POVAL™ 4-98 (formerly Mowiol® 4-98) by Kuraray is a fully saponified polyvinyl alcohol having varying degree of polymerization and hydrolysis. It is an odorless, water-soluble polymer manufactured by alcoholysis of polyvinyl acetate. It possesses good penetration capacity and good adhesion properties. It provides high cohesion, toughness, low electrostatic charging and re-dissolving capacity of the dried film in water. Its aqueous solution can be added to polymer emulsions already stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol which affects the extension of the open time, setting speed and rheology. KURARAY POVAL™ 4-98 is designed for use in pressure sensitive adhesive labels. Complies with EU Directive 67/548/EC.

Gp Bks-2600 product card banner

Georgia-Pacific Chemicals

GP BKS-2600

Brand: GP

Applications: Industrial Coatings

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

GP® BKS-2600 heat-reactive phenolic resin solution in ethanol is formulated to provide chemical resistance for protective coatings for rigid metallic substrates.

Kuraray Poval™ 10-98 product card banner

Kuraray

Kuraray Poval™ 10-98

Brand: Kuraray Poval

Applications: Textile Manufacturing, Other Industrial Applications, Labels

Product Families: Vinyl Polymers, Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives, Polyvinyl Alcohols & Esters

Polymer Name: Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)

End Uses: Labels, Textile Sizing, Barrier Coatings

KURARAY POVAL™ 10-98 (formerly Mowiol® 10-98) by Kuraray is a fully saponified, odorless, water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol manufactured by alcoholysis of polyvinyl acetate. Shows varying degree of polymerization and hydrolysis. Its aqueous solution can be added to polymer emulsions already stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol which affects the extension of the open time, setting speed and rheology. Exhibits good penetration capacity and good adhesion properties. Offers high cohesion & toughness, low electrostatic charging and re-dissolving capacity of the dried film in water. KURARAY POVAL™ 10-98 is suitable for use in pressure sensitive adhesive labels. Complies with EU Directive 67/548/EC.

Licocene® Pp 2502 Granules product card banner

Clariant

Licocene® PP 2502 granules

Brand: Licocene

Applications: Coated Paper & Paperboard, Industrial Coatings, Appliances & Electronics

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Dispersing & Wetting Additives

Licocene PP 2502 granules is a low crystalline metallocene-technology based propylene-ethylene-copolymer.

Si Group Sp-103 product card banner

SI Group

SI Group SP-103

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

SP-103 is a modified alkylphenol-formaldehyde resin used in making a polychloroprene contact cements. The outstanding features of this resin are its light color and ability to extend open time without affecting other properties of the finished adhesive. SP-103 is extensively employed in perparation of general-purpose and heat-activating polychloroprene cements. It can also be used in formulating NBR, SBR, natural and reclaimed rubbers SP-103 is a completely compatible with polychloroprene and nitrile rubbers.

Vinnapas® Uw 4 Fs product card banner

Wacker Chemie AG

VINNAPAS® UW 4 FS

Brand: VINNAPAS

Applications: Coil Coatings, Wood Coatings & Finishes, Sports & Fashion

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders

Chemical Family: Vinyls, Vinylics & Vinyl Derivatives

VINNAPAS® UW 4 FS is a solid, thermoplastic homopolymer. The clear and colorless resin is prepared by polymerization of vinyl acetate. VINNAPAS® UW 4 FS is tasteless.

Silres® Bs 1306 product card banner

Wacker Chemie AG

SILRES® BS 1306

Brand: SILRES

Applications: Decorative Paints, Decorative Paints & Coatings, Architectural Coatings

Product Families: Surface Modifiers, Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Siloxanes, Silicones

SILRES® BS 1306 is a solventless, water-thinnable emulsion of a polysiloxane modified with functional silicone resin.

Gp Ck-2400 product card banner

Georgia-Pacific Chemicals

GP CK-2400

Brand: GP

Applications: Automotive OEM Coatings

Product Families: Other Resins & Binders, Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Phenols & Phenolics

GP® CK-2400 coating resin is a novolac resin modifier for alkyd and epoxy air dry coatings designed to improve water resistance, hardness, leveling, gloss and intercoat adhesion.