Vitamins, Extracts & Oils

3,933 products found for Vitamins, Extracts & Oils in Cosmetic Ingredients
Dsm Niacinamide Pc product card banner

DSM

DSM Niacinamide PC

Applications: Other Beauty & Care, Color Cosmetics, Hair Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Other Functional Additives, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

Labeling Claims: Preservative-free, Non-GMO, BSE-free

Benefit Claims: Skin Barrier, Barrier Function Improvement, Blue Light Protection

For flawless, resilient skin and a radiant complexion. Niacinamide PC (vitamin B3) is a special cosmetic proprietary grade supplied by DSM, which has a guaranteed low level of residual nicotinic acid to address any concerns about unpleasant skin sensations. Niacinamide PC is a building block in cosmetic formulations. Its main benefits include blemish care (blemish-free, shine-free, refined skin appearance), UV- and blue-light-stressed skin care (skin tone, damage caused by light), and enhanced functionality of the skin barrier. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.

Sytenol® A Yes, Retinol Found Its Match product card banner

Sytheon

Sytenol® A Yes, Retinol Found Its Match

Brand: Sytenol

Applications: Treatment Products, Skin Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives, Conditioners & Emollients

End Uses: Acne Treatments, Anti-Aging Products

Sytenol® A is the first natural alternative to Retinol without having any of the negatives associated with Retinol. Well-defined compound (purity over 99%), Bakuchiol has clinically demonstrated to reduce hyperpigmentation and wrinkles as efficiently as retinol, with a better skin tolerance.

Alpaflor® Alp-sebum Cb product card banner

DSM

ALPAFLOR® ALP-SEBUM CB

Brand: ALPAFLOR

Applications: Skin Care, Color Cosmetics, Hair Care

Product Families: Other Functional Additives, Preservatives, Botanicals

Chemical Family: Botanical Derivatives

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

ALPAFLOR® -ALP-SEBUM CB, our sustainable, organic prebiotic to reduce skin oiliness and balance the microbiome. It moderates sebum production, the main cause of oily skin, by inhibiting the key enzyme 5-α-reductase. New studies show that this skin active not only helps reduce sebum levels but also strongly modulates the key bacteria on all facial areas, restoring skin's healthy appearance. Thanks to 3D facial color mapping, we can show that sebum distribution is more complex than just the T-zone – which goes to show that when it comes to targeting oily skin, what’s needed is an effective all-rounder ingredient! In our new study, we’ve demonstrated that the organic skin care active ingredient ALPAFLOR® ALP-SEBUM CB helps reduce sebum levels on all facial areas after 4 weeks, leaving skin less oily and more mattified.

Ac™ Retinol Liposome product card banner

Active Concepts, LLC

AC™ Retinol Liposome

Brand: AC

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Stabilizers, Other Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Phospholipids

Naturally enhance beauty from within! Retinol (vitamin A) is a vital for optimizing the health of our skin. Often used to treat problem skin, vitamin A enhances cell turnover and increases collagen production. Incorporating Retinol into a liposome allows formulators to use this anhydrous active in aqueous based systems.

Dsm Dl-α-tocopheryl Acetate product card banner

DSM

DSM DL-α-Tocopheryl Acetate

Applications: Oral Care, Color Cosmetics, Hair Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

Antioxidant to create and protect alluring skin every day. DL-α-Tocopherol Acetate is synthetic vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E is a building block in cosmetic formulations: it has proven antioxidant effects, enhances moisturization and strengthens the skin barrier. Vitamin E helps to counteract the appearance of inflammation linked to oxidative processes through downregulation of its mediators. As one of the most powerful oil-soluble antioxidants and free-radical scavengers available today, Vitamin E plays a crucial role in oxidative regeneration of skin exposed to stressors. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.

Gelalg™ Spe product card banner

SEPPIC INC

GELALG™ SPE

Brand: GELALG

Applications: Hair Care, Skin Care

Product Families: Marine Extracts, Rheology Modifiers, Film Formers

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts

GELALG™ SPE is a water soluble red algae extract in gel form. GELALG™ SPE has multiple functions as the presence of carrageenan found in the algae helps to give an immediate lifting effect while moisturizing the skin. In hair care applications GELALG™ SPE works to smooth scales repairing damage while giving a silky appearance.

Natipide® Eco product card banner

Lipoid Kosmetik AG

Natipide® Eco

Brand: Natipide

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Solvents & Carriers

Natipide Eco is a new innovative transport system for hydrophilic cosmetic active ingredients, made exclusively from natural raw materials. The pre-liposomal concentrated formula makes it possible to produce stable liposomes of 200 nm by simply dispersing it in water. An in vivo study by RAMAN spectroscopy was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy and performance of Natipide Eco as a vector in the skin: compared to the unencapsulated active, the active ingredient in Natipide Eco penetrates deeper and its concentration in the Stratum Corneum is increased by 50%.

Abs™ Colloidal Oat Pf product card banner

Active Concepts, LLC

ABS™ Colloidal Oat Pf

Brand: ABS

Applications: Treatment Products, Skin Care, Hair Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Texturizers & Fillers, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Body Firming Lotion, Acne Treatments, Anti-Aging Products

Long standing reputation of delivering smoothing, moisturizing, and soothing benefits in hair care products marketed to scalp and skin sensitive consumers

Lonza Niacinamide Usp Pc product card banner

Lonza

Lonza Niacinamide USP PC

Applications: Baby Care, Sun Care, AP/Deo

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Other Functional Additives, Preservatives

Chemical Family: Amides, Amides & Polyamides

End Uses: Fragrances & Perfumes, Body Firming Lotion, Anti-Dandruff Products

Niacinamide (USP) (nicotinamide) comprises one of the two forms of Vitamin B3; niacin (or nicotinic acid) being the other, both of which provide equivalent vitamin activity. As an essential component of living cells, Vitamin B3 is essential for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Niacinamide is a precursor in the synthesis of the pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP involved in cell metabolism, and as such play a key role in the production of energy.

Nv™ Retinol product card banner

Nanovetores Tecnologia S.A.

NV™ Retinol

Brand: NV

Applications: Bath & Shower, Skin Care, Other Beauty & Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Other Functional Additives, Skin Actives

Chemical Family: Glycerides

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

NV Retinol is an encapsulated active ingredient in lipid particles with a diameter larger than 200nm. Encapsulation through the technology developed by Nanovetores allows the stabilization of sensitive components, therefore, complex of being formulated. The encapsulated active ingredient is fully stable and after permeation in the skin, oxidizes and becomes a retinoic acid, ensuring greater results related to whitening and reducing skin wrinkles safely.

Dsm D-panthenol product card banner

DSM

DSM D-Panthenol

Applications: Nail Care, Skin Care, Color Cosmetics

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Other Functional Additives, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

Labeling Claims: Preservative-free, Non-GMO, BSE-free

Benefit Claims: Humectancy, Hair Straightening, Skin Protection

The gold standard moisturizer for skin and hair care. D-Panthenol (pro-vitamin B5) is a viscous liquid. D-Panthenol (or D-Panthenol 75L) is the form best suited for biological or physiological activity such as wound healing and soothing, stimulation of epithelization, etc. Beneficial for very dry, cracked, and rough skin. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.

Fision® Activewhite product card banner

TRI-K Industries, Inc.

Fision® ActiveWhite

Brand: Fision

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives, Solvents & Carriers

Fision™ ActiveWhite is a non-animal, non-GMO, gluten & paraben free multifunctional active which evens skin tone for a healthier looking complexion. This product visibly lightens skin in 4 weeks and reduces dull appearance for brighter skin. Fision™ ActiveWhite inhibits tyrosinase better than individual ingredients and industry benchmarks to reduce melanin formation. It also protects and supports skin health with potent antioxidants and calming oat oligopeptides. Achieve the complexion you desire with Fision™ ActiveWhite.

Kalpariane™ product card banner

SEPPIC INC

KALPARIANE™

Brand: KALPARIANE

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Marine Extracts, Preservatives, Other Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts, Glycerides

KALPARIANE™ helps improve the firmness of the skin. It comes from Alaria esculenta, a brown algae exposed to stresses from the ocean's waves and from living in a light-deficient environment. To counterbalance these stresses, the algae has adapted to survive, achieving molecules rich in nutrients ideal for skin nutrition, protection, and suppleness. KALPARIANE™ has superior anti-aging action, maintaining cell communication at the epidermic level by activating connexions 43 for an optimum keratogenesis.

Granactive™ Retinoid product card banner

Grant Industries

Granactive™ Retinoid

Brand: Granactive

Applications: Skin Care, Sun Care, Bath & Shower

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Solvents & Carriers, Sunscreen Agents

End Uses: Corn & Callus Treatment

Granactive Retinoid is a concentrated and easily formulated anhydrous matrix containing 10% of the pinacolyl ester of all-trans retinoic acid in a premium delivery solvent. This product is one of the most bio-available, non-prescription forms of Vitamin-A sold in cosmetics and decreases the effects of UV induced skin damage and helps clear acne related symptoms. It can be applied in skincare, color cosmetic and body care formulations.

Granlux® Aox product card banner

Granula Ltd.

Granlux® AOX

Brand: Granlux

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives

GranLux® AOX is composed of Picea Abies Extract, a high performance natural antioxidant with surprising benefits. It helps prevent lipid peroxidation, LDL oxidation, arachidonix acid oxidation, and HC=CH oxidation. This product works in both hydro- and lipophilic environments and is active over a wide pH range.

Seboxyl® product card banner

Solabia Group

Seboxyl®

Brand: Seboxyl

Applications: Skin Care, Treatment Products

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives, Skin Actives

Chemical Family: Botanical Extracts

End Uses: Acne Treatments

Seboxyl® is a vegetal juice of fresh organic blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves, obtained by cold pressing in a non-denaturing condition, with organic vegetal glycerin. Raw material certified by ECOCERT Greenlife according to the ECOCERT Standard for Natural and Organic Cosmetics. 99.8% of the total of ingredients are from natural origin. 99.55% of the total of ingredients are from Organic Farming. Raw material certified as 97.9% organic by ECOCERT Greenlife according to the COSMOS, 49.775% of physically processed organic ingredients (organic PPAI). 48.132% of chemically processed organic ingredients (organic CPAI).

Dsm Mixed Tocopherols 95 product card banner

DSM

DSM Mixed Tocopherols 95

Applications: Skin Care, Hair Care, Sun Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Sunscreen Lotions & Sprays

Antioxidant to create and protect alluring skin every day. Mixed Tocopherols 95 is mostly used to stabilize oxygen-sensitive ingredients in formulations. It contains É‘-Tocopherol at 0-15%, β-Tocopherol at < 5%,γ-Tocopherol at 55-75%, and δ-Tocopherol at 20-30%. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.

Acb™ Purslane Bioferment product card banner

Active Concepts, LLC

ACB™ Purslane Bioferment

Brand: ACB

Applications: Color Cosmetics, Skin Care, Sun Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives

End Uses: Shampoos & Rinses

Don't forget to look at the big picture. We all know that vitamin C is an excellent antioxidant, but there are certainly issues with regard stability . However if we step back and look at the cause, we are more likely to come up with appropriate solution. Purslane is a natural source of glutathione, an ingredient that stabilizes vitamin C. ACB Purslane Bioferment contains glutathione and glutathione reductase. The glutathione stabilizes Vitamin C, while the glutathione reductase helps regenerate glutathione so it keeps working. At last there's an easy, natural solution to Vitamin C stability.

Nano™ T-growth Hair product card banner

Nanovetores Tecnologia S.A.

Nano™ T-Growth Hair

Brand: Nano

Applications: Other Beauty & Care, Hair Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives, Conditioners & Emollients

End Uses: Hair Conditioner, Anti-Hair Loss Products, Shampoos & Rinses

Nano T-Growth Hair is a blend of active ingredients encapsulated in biopolymer particles with particle diameter larger than 200 nm. The blend encapsulation through the technology developed by Nanovetores allows the stabilization of sensitive components, therefore, complex of being formulated in their free form. Due to its natural features and non-existent chemical aggression, Nano T-Growth Hair can be used daily, providing in continuous applications the balancing of oily hair and reactivating hair growth.

Antileukine™ 6 product card banner

SEPPIC INC

Antileukine™ 6

Brand: Antileukine

Applications: Bath & Shower, Sun Care, Skin Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Sensorial Modifiers, Skin Actives

Chemical Family: Glycerides

End Uses: Body Creams & Lotions, Masks & Facial Treatment, Facial Masks

ANTILEUKINE™ 6 is a global anti-aging and defense shield that reduces the release of inflammation mediators. It is also a DNA protector after UVA/UVB exposure. It comes from a golden seaweed: Laminaria ochroleuca.

Nano™ Cellulitech product card banner

Nanovetores Tecnologia S.A.

Nano™ Cellulitech

Brand: Nano

Applications: Bath & Shower, Skin Care, AP/Deo

Product Families: Essential Oils, Sensorial Modifiers, Skin Actives

Chemical Family: Essential Oils

End Uses: Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants, Anti-Aging Products

Nano Cellulitech is a blend of active ingredients encapsulated in lipid particles with particle diameter larger than 200nm. Blend encapsulation through the Nanovetores Technology allows the stabilization of sensitive components, therefore, complex of being formulated in its free form. The blend of active ingredients acts synergistically in the treatment and size reduction of cellulite, providing draining and anti-inflammatory action, working as free radicals scavengers, reducing lipogenesis, activating lipolysis with a significant improvement of microcirculation. Nano Cellulitech reduces the orance peel aspect in just one application.

Vitispheres™ R8 product card banner

Clariant

Vitispheres™ R8

Brand: Vitispheres

Applications: Skin Care, Hair Care, Sun Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Texturizers & Fillers, Stabilizers

Chemical Family: Glycerides

Vitispheres™ R8 is a stable, membrane structured solid lipid particle. It provides unique benefits due to its solid structure, such as a backbone designed for optimal cosmetic active loading and prolonged stability of cosmetic actives. This product is recommended for face care, hair care, skin care, and sun care applications. The active substance in Vitispheres™ R8 is Retinol (8.0%).

Dandelix Pro™ product card banner

Normactive

DANDELIX PRO™

Brand: DANDELIX PRO

Applications: Other Beauty & Care, Hair Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Antimicrobials, Sensorial Modifiers

End Uses: Anti-Dandruff Products, Shampoos & Rinses, Hair Treatment & Repair

DANDELIX PRO™ is a natural solution for dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis and scalp itchiness. It sooths irritated scalp and regulates sebum production hence eliminates formation of dandruff flakes. DANDELIX PRO™ shows anti-fungal activity to inhibit proliferation of Malassezia species. It combats dandruff without harming the scalp and leaves the scalp perfectly balanced.

Ac™ Vitamin Ace Liposome Pf product card banner

Active Concepts, LLC

AC™ Vitamin ACE Liposome Pf

Brand: AC

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives

Chemical Family: Phospholipids

AC Vitamin ACE Liposome PF is an antioxidant protection from essential vitamins A, C, & E drastically preventing the oxidation process to help maintain healthy cells.

Dsm Retinol Gs 50 product card banner

DSM

DSM RETINOL GS 50

Applications: Treatment Products, Other Beauty & Care, Color Cosmetics

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Sensorial Modifiers, Conditioners & Emollients

End Uses: Hand Soap, Body Creams & Lotions, Scar Treatment

Revealing the power of younger-looking skin. RETINOL GS 50 consists of the active retinol (50%) diluted in Polysorbate 20, and offers effective anti-aging care for a smooth and youthful appearance. This product is recommended for use in anti-aging and anti-wrinkle products, products for even skin tone care, age spot treatment, skin resculpting and smoothing products, and slimming and body sculpturing products. For detailed regulatory or quality information, please contact the supplier.

Bioenergizer™ P Bg Pf product card banner

SEPPIC INC

BIOENERGIZER™ P BG PF

Brand: BIOENERGIZER

Applications: Treatment Products, Hair Care, Color Cosmetics

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Marine Extracts, Other Surfactants & Cleansers

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts

End Uses: Mascara

A union of two algae: Laminaria digitata, known for its energizing properties and sebum flow regulation action Pelvetia canaliculata, known for its anti-stress, energizing and cleansing properties.

Phytocare-ha™ Cg 1M product card banner

Applechem, Inc.

PHYTOCARE-HA™ CG 1M

Brand: PHYTOCARE-HA

Applications: Color Cosmetics, Skin Care, Other Beauty & Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives, Film Formers

End Uses: Concealer, Shampoos & Rinses, Moisturizers

Phytocare is a COSMOS-approved biological active extracted from Snow Mushrooms. It has played a prominent role in Chinese history as a celebrated ingredient in herbal, cosmetic, and culinary applications. It features powerful hydration, film forming and anti-oxidation properties, making it very suitable for anti-aging, anti-pollution, and urban defense formulations.

Ronacare® Nicotinamide product card banner

EMD Performance Materials

RonaCare® Nicotinamide

Brand: RonaCare

Applications: Color Cosmetics, Treatment Products, Sun Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Sensorial Modifiers, Conditioners & Emollients

Chemical Family: Polylactic Acid (PLA), Polyesters

End Uses: Body Firming Lotion, Anti-Dandruff Products, Skin Brightening Products

RonaCare® Nicotinamide is used as an anti-cellulite agent. Today, everyone knows that due to their protective and regenerative forces, vitamins are among essential ingredients contained in cosmetics.

Vegeluron® Gel product card banner

MMP, Inc.

Vegeluron® Gel

Brand: Vegeluron

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Other Functional Additives

Vegeluron® Gel is a clear colorless gel of a polysaccharide extracted from a mushroom. It has an intense moisturizing and a light film forming effect with a soft touch. It adds sensorial qualities to formulations (light feel, slip, lubricity). It is a natural alternative to hyaluronic acid, and its softness makes it also a natural alternative to silicones. For skin and hair care.

Adipoless™ product card banner

SEPPIC INC

ADIPOLESS™

Brand: ADIPOLESS

Applications: Bath & Shower, Skin Care, Color Cosmetics

Product Families: Botanicals

End Uses: Body Firming Lotion, Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants

ADIPOLESS is a high-quality extract of quinoa grown in Canada with a double action anti-angiogenesis slimming action and anti-dark circles action.

Thalassine 2™ G product card banner

SEPPIC INC

THALASSINE 2™ G

Brand: THALASSINE 2

Applications: Skin Care, Treatment Products

Product Families: Marine Extracts, Skin Actives, Other OTC Actives

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts

End Uses: Pain Relief Products

Thalassine 2™ G is a Sea chamomile extract with unique skin relaxing properties. Its targeted action on substance P and acetylcholine help quickly reduce the appearance of expression lines and wrinkles. Thalassine 2G® is water soluble and preservative free.

Marimoist® product card banner

Biocogent LLC

MariMoist®

Brand: MariMoist

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Marine Extracts, Other Functional Additives, Conditioners & Emollients

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts

End Uses: Moisturizers

MariMoist® improves aesthetic and tactile properties of finished products. It helps to build ‘body’, imparting a rich, luxurious feel to finished formulas. The HA and sea plant extract helps to improve texture without feeling tacky or sticky. Because MariMoist binds a great deal of water, it instantly hydrates and softens dry skin.

Oligogeline™ Pf product card banner

SEPPIC INC

Oligogeline™ PF

Brand: Oligogeline

Applications: Sun Care, Skin Care, Hair Care

Product Families: Marine Extracts, Sensorial Modifiers, Other Functional Additives

Chemical Family: Plant Extracts

End Uses: Body Creams & Lotions, Antiperspirants & Deodorants, Facial Moisturizer

Oligogeline™ PF comes from a specific algal origin: chondrus crispus algae, a red seaweed living in deep water, submitted to extreme environmental conditions (e.g. ocean waves, UV exposure, dry conditions at low tide). Rich in carageenans, OLIGOGELINE™ PF has a "second skin" effect, forming a smooth and comfortable protective film on the skin's surface and reducing TEWL.

Specwhite® 02 product card banner

Spec-Chem Industry Inc.

SpecWhite® 02

Brand: SpecWhite

Applications: Bath & Shower, Skin Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Preservatives, Skin Actives

End Uses: Body Creams & Lotions, Essence, Facial Masks

SpecWhite® 02 is a stable vitamin C derivative which releases Vc by cellular α-glucosidase steadily at very right conversion rate to enhance skin functions without side effects. It is watersoluble, and easy to formulate. SpecWhite® 02 can effectively inhibit the production of melanin, promote the synthesis of collagen, and eliminate free radicals (DPPH), so it has the effects of brightening & whitening skin, anti-oxidation and delaying skin aging. In addition, it can help relieve skin damage from sun exposure. Thus, SpecWhite® 02 is recommended for lotion, emulsion, essence, cream and other products.

Collageneer® product card banner

Laboratoires Expanscience

Collageneer®

Brand: Collageneer

Applications: Skin Care

Product Families: Botanicals, Preservatives, Skin Actives

End Uses: Anti-Aging Products

Collageneer® is a patented active ingredient derived from white Lupin seeds, rich in Lupeol, active molecule that increases the synthesis of Collagen I. Collageneer® has also a complementary stimulation on the production of a high quality collagen by promoting the synthesis of HSP 47 (Heat Shock Proteins), a Chaperone protein.Thanks to Collageneer® at 2%, after 42 days, the firmness of the skin is improved by 92% and the sagging of the facial contour is reduced by 72% (clinical study, Self-assessment evaluation). After 89 days, the skin elasticity is also improved by 10% (clinical study, Cutometer).Collageneer® is originating from French reasoned farming sourcing. This oil soluble active ingredient is preserved with natural Alpha-Tocopherol.

Jubilant Life Sciences Niacinamide Pc Ultra Pure (Max 100 Ppm Niacin) product card banner

Jubilant Ingrevia Limited

Jubilant Life Sciences Niacinamide PC Ultra Pure (Max 100 Ppm Niacin)

Applications: Skin Care, Sun Care, Other Beauty & Care

Product Families: Vitamins & Derivatives, Sensorial Modifiers, Skin Actives

Niacinamide (Nicotinamide) is a multifunctional, high value added, cost effective, globally approved ingredient that should be considered for use in most skin care formulations. Its numerous skin care benefits have been extensively substantiated in numerous peer reviewed scientific journals and publications. It has been used in dermatology for more than 45 years for a diverse range of conditions including acne, rosacea, psoriasis, autoimmune bullous dermatoses, the treatment and prevention of photoaging and photoimmunosuppression.