Knowde Enhanced TDS
Identification & Functionality+
Features & Benefits+
- Effective odor neutraliser against a range of malodours.
- 100% bio-based
- Readily soluble in aqueous formulations.
- Leaves no surface residues.
- Safe to use on stain-resistant carpets.
- Can be formulated with fragrances.
- Stable in hard water, from pH 2-11
- Low foaming
- No restaining of treated surfaces
Applications & Uses+
- Fabric and upholstery refreshers and cleaners.
- Air fresheners
- Bathroom and surface cleaners.
- Liquid laundry detergents (especially useful for sports-wear and industrial clothing)
- Pet and urine odor removal.
- Waste treatment and landfill facilities.
- Animal and agriculture waste containment sites.
|Value||Units||Test Method / Conditions|
|Average Molecular Weight||5500||g/mol|
Technical Details & Test Data+
Odor Reduction Performance
Zinc complexes are widely used to neutralise odours caused by hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans, thioethers, isovaleric acid and ammonia. ZINADOR™ 22L is a new technology that provides an easier-to-use, more costeffective approach to formulating zinc complexes into household and industrial products to give effective odour neutralisation.
Odor Neutraliser Performance on Ammonia
Ammonia is a common malodour that is most associated with urine. It is important that this odour can be counteracted especially in applications such as bathroom cleaners, sprays and laundry care. Two commercial zinc ricinoleate products were tested against ZINADOR™ 22L on a comparable inclusion level basis, in order to assess their odour neutralising performance against ammonia. The odor neutraliser to be tested was added to 25ml of a synthetic urine solution (0.125% ammonia in deionised water). The sample was then inverted once to mix the solution before peak ammonia level readings in ppm were taken using an MSA ammonia gas detector (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The setup used to detect the level of ammonia present in the air
Figure 2: ZINADOR™ 22L ammonia neutraliser performance against competitor products on a comparable inclusion level basis
As seen in Figure 2, it requires less than 1g of ZINADOR™ 22L to drop the concentration of ammonia below the odour detection threshold. Comparing this to the nearest competitors, it can be seen that they both require around 4g of product to reach the same level of odour neutralisation.
Comparison Against Commercial Off-the-shelf Products
Two commercially available odour neutraliser products were tested against ZINADOR™ 22L in order to assess their odour neutralising performance against ammonia. 2g of the odour neutraliser was added to 25ml of a synthetic urine solution (0.125% ammonia in deionised water). The sample was then inverted once before peak ammonia level readings in ppm were taken using an MSA ammonia gas detector.
Figure 3: Ammonia neutralisation effect of commercial products one minute after addition
As seen in Figure 3, ZINADOR™ 22L outperforms commercially available products in reducing the odor of ammonia.
Odor Reduction Panel Testing
Independent laboratory panel testing was used to prove the odor reduction performance that ZINADOR™ 22L can provide, compared to a generic zinc ricinoleate-based odour neutraliser. Cotton and polyester fabric swatches were impregnated with the following odors: body odour, cat urine and food odors. These swatches were then evaluated by trained panellists, who rated them out of 10 by comparing the treated fabrics to a reference odor fabric swatch. The lower the score, the less similar the swatch was to the reference odour and therefore the lower the perceived odor.
Figure 4: Odor reduction panel test results for ZINADOR™ 22L compared to zinc ricinoleate (0.05% active Zn)
The results in Figure 4 show that Zinador delivers excellent odour reduction performance across all of the odors tested, with equal to or better performance than the current market-leading zinc-based odour neutralisation technology.
Neutralisation of DEA Molecules
Diethylamine (DEA) is an unpleasant malodor associated with the scent of rotting fish. The capability of ZINADOR™ 22L to neutralise DEA was tested by the preparation of a solution containing a standard reference detergent and ZINADOR™ 22L at varying levels. The concentration and rate of DEA released was assessed using gas chromatography flame ionisation detector (GC-FID).
Figure 5: DEA odour reduction by Zinador 22L
ZINADOR™ 22L effectively removes a model odor molecule (DEA) from the gas phase and immobilises it in the water phase, thus making the odor no longer detectable/perceivable. The DEA binds to the zinc from ZINADOR™ 22L in a 1:1 molar ratio.
ZINADOR™ 22L in Laundry Detergent
A build-up of body soil during the wear-wash-wear cycle of fabrics can result in fatty organic residue causing malodor on the fabric. This is often seen on synthetic fabrics and is a particular problem on sportswear but is also present on other garments. CONSUMERTEC produce the Dingy MS Persistent Malodor, that has been designed to replicate this persistent body-like malodor. The standardised Dingy MS Persistent Malodor is supplied on a poly/cotton (65:35) swatch, as is used in clothes, sportswear and bed linen.
To prove the efficacy of ZINADOR™ 22L, two sets of standardised malodor swatches were washed in a frontloading washing machine on the cottons 40°C program. The first set was washed with 35ml of a commercially available fragrance-free laundry detergent and the second with the same detergent plus 3% ZINADOR™ 22L. A panel of untrained analysts were asked which swatch had less odor both before and after line drying.
Figure 6: ZINADOR™ 22L performance on washed swatches containing malodor both before and after line drying
The results in Figure 4 show that the majority of panellists found that swatches washed with detergent containing ZINADOR™ 22L had less odor. This was evident when evaluated both wet and dry (70% and 90% respectively). Adding ZINADOR™ 22L to laundry detergent has been shown to significantly reduce persistent body odors on fabric both before and after drying, making ZINADOR™ 22L the ideal choice for odor control in laundry detergents.
Foaming in Odor Neutralisers
Two commercial zinc ricinoleate products were tested against ZINADOR™ 22L in order to assess the volume of foam produced when in solution. 1 g/L solutions of each product were made up and added to a SITA foam tester. Foam generation was measured at 25°C with an agitation speed of 1200rpm. The volume of foam produced was measured over a number of intervals and the results can be seen in Figure 7, below.
Figure 7: Comparison of foam levels in solutions containing ZINADOR™ 22L and competitor products
The results in Figure 7, show that ZINADOR™ 22L produces very little foam when in solution. This is extremely helpful to formulators as they will not need to worry about excess foam generation, unlike if competitor products were being used.
Figure 8 shows vials of 5% w/w solutions of commercial zinc ricinoleate (ZnR) odor neutralisers after 5 seconds shaking, showing that ZINADOR™ 22L is both low foam and easy to solubilise in water alone. By comparison, traditional ZnR-based odor neutralisers may require solubilisers, which can in turn lead to unwanted foam generation.
Figure 8: Comparison of foam generation after 5 seconds of shaking
Fabric Residue Comparative Performance
Four commercial zinc ricinoleate products were comparatively tested against ZINADOR™ 22L, in order to assess the residues left on fabric after use. One drop of neat product was mixed with 5 drops deionised water on a ceramic tile and a clean, dry swatch of polyester/cotton (65/35) applied to absorb the solution in its centre. Images of the fabric swatches after air drying can be seen in Figure 9.
Figure 9: Fabric residues testing results
Figure 9 shows that ZINADOR™ 22L leaves no residues on fabric, whereas all four ZnR-based competitors leave oily, waxy residues. This is important for both fabric appearance after use and in applications where re-staining can be caused by residues, for example in carpet care.
Wide Formulation Compatibility
ZINADOR™ 22L is a 100% bio-based product that delivers major new formulating and cost advantages over the current market-leading technologies. Formulating with ZINADOR™ 22L is easier and more effective than current leading zinc-based technology. Odour neutralisation claims and performance are easily achieved with ZINADOR™ 22L, without the need for adding:
- Anti-foaming agents
Overall, formulations are simpler, work across broad pH and temperature ranges and do not leave problematic surface residues. Some further formulation development may be required when using ZINADOR™ 22L in liquid laundry detergents, due to high salt content. Usage in fabric conditioners with cationic surfactants is not recommended.
In order to demonstrate formulation compatibility, three common formulation ingredients (alkyl polyglucoside, ethoxylate and triethanolamine) were added to 3% ZINADOR™ 22L solutions and stability testing carried out at 25°C and 40°C. After 3 months, ammonia neutralisation performance was assessed and compared to initial performance. The results can be seen in Figure 10, below.
Figure 10: Ammonia neutralisation effect of 3% ZINADOR™ 22L in different solutions of common formulation ingredients, tested initially and after 3 months at 25°C and 40°C
The results in Figure 10, show that there is excellent formulation stability when using ZINADOR™ 22L and there is no loss in the odour neutralisation performance of the product, when used alongside these common formulation ingredients.
ZINADOR™ 22L is 100% water soluble, with excellent stability in very hard water conditions, over a broad pH range (2-11) and temperature range. Current leading zinc-based odour neutraliser technologies require different products for different pH ranges, as well as added chelators for protection against hard water conditions.
ZINADOR™ 22L is fully compatible with leading non-ionic and anionic surfactants, fragrances and hydrogen peroxide. It should be transported and stored below 40°C and is stable to freeze/thaw. In end-use formulations ZINADOR™ 22L is stable up to 60°C.